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Faasisiirded

Faasisiire on aine üleminek ühest olekust teise.

Sulamine ja jäätumine

Jäätumise käigus tekkivad veemolekulide vahele vesiniksidemed ja moodustuvad kristallstruktuurid.

Development of the atomic model

Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.

Electron configuration of calcium

This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

The structure of nitrogen molecules

This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two pi bonds holding the atoms together.

Chain reaction

Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Environmentally friendly vehicles

Combining a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system reduces emission.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it is released into the atmosphere.

Aluminium smelting

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from alumina by electrolysis.

Atmospheric circulation

The difference between the temperature of the polar and equatorial zones causes atmospheric circulation which is affected by a number of factors, including...

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Ozone layer

The ozone layer filters the Sun´s harmful UV radiation, therefore it is indispensable for life on Earth.

Nitrogen cycle

Atmospherical nitrogen is bound by bacteria and used by living organisms in the form of various compounds.

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.

House without carbon-dioxide emission

The design and structure of modern houses play an important role in environmental protection.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)

Limestone is a widely and diversely used material.

Nitrous acid (HNO₂)

One of the oxoacids of nitrogen. Colourless, moderate acid with a pungent odour, that exists only in aqueous solution.

Phosphorus pentoxide (P₂O₅)

A compound formed as white smoke during the combustion of phosphorus.

Dissolution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water

The solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid.

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